Social manipulation efforts, such as harming the reputation of a target with fake news and provocative data leaks, are effective in disrupting organisations. Even state actors carry out hybrid warfare operations in cyberspace and attack organisations. For example, fake hacktivist groups are organised by state actors.
Aside from political propaganda, misinformation can also be employed in industrial propaganda. Using tools such as advertising, a company can undermine reliable evidence or influence belief through concerted misinformation campaigns.